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I was astonished by the intense emotions these memories brought with them. Those months, more than any other time of my life, molded my personality. For the virus had created me. The epidemics in North America were also believed to have begun around , with the Vermont epidemic of — standing out as a key originating event; they mostly ended around Even so, biographies of polios lend themselves peculiarly well to access certain cultural problems.
While telling my own polio story, I provide citations from and references to hundreds of other accounts. Several books addressed by doctors to polio patients do the same. Four dozen are not listed in a single library catalogue anywhere in the world. Recently, a few reunion books have been put together containing various short polio testimonials, heavily edited into third-person stories or interviews. The illness narrative of Part 1, for 8 polio and its af termath example, starts in Quebec and moves to the United States.
This move across borders provides a cross-cultural viewpoint, politically as well as economically heterogeneous. Beyond that, the chapters present a panoply of demographically and politically diverse viewpoints. No study yet written attempts in any way to take in the whole world of the polio pandemics or allows us to see the universal in the particular in the sense that a painting, say, might. Certainly, studies by the inclusively named World Health Organization do not comprehensively cover the world.
Such studies can even serve to guard against complicating matters by trying to account for differences of economic class, race, religion, or language within the same region or time. Likewise, the distinction within North America between the public health and research institutions in publicly funded Canada and the privately funded United States is rarely pursued, or even that between anglophone and francophone institutions in Quebec. That is why a proper historiography of polio must now include the study of the sociopathology—or at least the biases—of the public health, medical, and disability rights systems in a political jurisdiction.
Our representative study here concerns tough love. Institutionally endorsed sociological treatments for dealing with polios include founding hospital rehabilitation schools for polios, orphanage hospitals for polio children unwanted by their parents, and various forms of programs aimed at reintegrating polios back into mainstream society or at allowing them to live on their own. White bread?
Pasteurization of milk? Poor diet in general? Lack of religious faith? Filthy Italian immigrants? Did dirty water cause polio? Alternatively, did clean water cause polio? Those effects range from literature to cinematography, from changing ideas about the image of the child to transforming notions about public health, and from a philosophy of static disability to one of kinetic ability.
But literature about polio has been largely overlooked in all histories of the disease and most histories of literature. Here too the research for writing Polio and Its Aftermath involved working with secondhand bookstores at home and overseas. Not one library or secondhand bookstore in the United States seemed then to have it. Eventually I found a copy in a secondhand bookstore in Cambridge, England. Polio and Its Aftermath helps bring to the fore a school of literature—the Polio School—and offers examples of both narrative and poetic art.
It is the mindfully understood link between body and mind that helps to characterize this literature. Trapped is a common title of polio narratives. In addition, sometimes I still want to hurt it for what it did to me, to take revenge against it, to let its aches and pains go unnoticed and untreated. As we shall see, however, the Kenny theory falls short. Along with music, opera, and theater, these are expressive forms involving self-conscious and willed bodily manipulation.
One of the central cultural developments of the twentieth century is cinematography. Cinematography was part of an attempt—one that included early medical photography—to cure people stilled by still photography. As polio still-photographers like Dorothea Lange knew, cinematography cures by means of kinesis. The dozens of movies dealing with paralysis that are referenced in Polio and Its Aftermath would, if taken together, constitute a reinterpretation of the history of cinema.
I test and illustrate my propositions about cinematography in several ways. First, Polio and Its Aftermath refers explicitly to dozens of movies about polios or about persons with poliolike disabilities or illnesses as well as to television shows. Especially interesting archival cinematographic material exists from around the time of the earliest movies, when polio was just beginning to show its true colors.
Third, I consider the cinematographic style and general themes of several movie directors paralyzed by polio. Finally, I have chosen for close analysis a particular text to test our main thesis.
That text is the mid-twentieth-century movie Rear Window , with its curiously corseted hero, a Hitchcock movie that came out halfway through the historical chronology of the cinema, as seen from the perspective of our own time. Rear Window provides our case study for kinesis and stasis of the body per se. Besides literature, painting, and cinema, another object of cultural study considered in Polio and Its Aftermath is the notion of childhood—an expected subject when one is considering the disease polio, often called infantile paralysis.
Here, too, I encountered severe archival problems. Literature written for child polios had not been collected—except as a sort of accidental byproduct. Nor had writing by polio children, either published or not, been collected. Moreover, historians had made almost no attempt to consult the tens of thousands of letters written by children.
Both had relatively late-onset diseases late, that is, compared with the onset of polio in childhood ; and both have written meta-autobiographies relating to their profession. And since it is the duty of all anthropologists to report on their travels. Murphy remains ignorant even of the existence of such paralyzed colleagues at his own Columbia University as the polio Edward Le Comte, who published Long Road Back after an onset of polio in adulthood.
Sontag, who wrote in the wake of the Frankfurt School of social criticism, had cancer in , when she wrote Illness as Metaphor. Written in lieu of a memoir, the book claims to consider tuberculosis and 14 polio and its af termath cancer her own illness as problematic metaphors. Further, polio affected the body only, though that may seem ruin enough, not the face.
The relatively appropriate, unmetaphorical reaction to polio owes much to the privileged status of the face, so determining of our evaluation of physical beauty and of physical ruin. In fact, however, polios are sometimes affected in their faces.
In the passage quoted earlier, Sontag says that the effect of polio was not repulsive. Yet, polio did commonly result in something many people found distressing or off-putting. Tens of thousands of untreated polios were called deformed, misshapen, or hunchbacked.
I mean cholera as a European and American, therefore a nineteenth-century disease; until there had never been a cholera epidemic outside the Far East. Nor was a more recent epidemic, polio. One reason why plague notions were not involved is that these epidemics did not have enough of the attributes perennially ascribed to plagues.
For instance, polio was construed as typically a disease of children—of the innocent. Sontag is right that polio was generally seen in the United States as a disease of children.
Yet polio was also sometimes a disease of adults. When, in Quebec, polio wiped out half the population of a town, most cases in- 16 polio and its af termath volved older adolescents and adults; and adults had the more severe cases. The medical profession itself sometimes confused syphilitic paresis with poliomyelitic paralysis.
Moreover, many polios recall the doctrine of sin inculcated into them by the nursing and medical professions alike. Otherwise, it was because one was guilty of not wanting to get better.
Both these sins led the polio to the priest or psychiatrist. She asserts that the kill rate for polio was low—but any kill rate needs to be measured in terms of time and space. Viewed as such, polio killed 5 percent of the total population at that time. Third, Sontag suggests that because polio was usually viewed as she would have it as a childhood disease and the plague was not, polio could not be a plague.
In fact, though, polio was also known as a disease of adults as we have already seen. And, what is more important, discussions of the plague often do include children, sometimes preeminently. Plagues did affect children—and people knew it precisely from the stories and metaphors of the period. In this movie, the pharaoh Ramses II is tormented by the death of his young son at the hands of a shadowy Angel of Death.
For Sontag to have known nothing of polio would be almost impossible, for someone who grew up in New York. New York history included the New York epidemic of , with a quarantine that was the largest in world history. In that year there were more than twenty-seven thousand reported cases of polio in the United States—and more than seven thousand deaths. Throughout the period ——when Sontag was between nine and nineteen years of age—polio continued to appear in the headlines of the New York Times.
It was printed and reprinted myriad times in all New York newspapers and was pasted onto buses, subway cards, and billboards. Comparative Diseases Dr. Of one kind or another. Do different diseases differently affect the brain, in such a way that the victim of one disease will narrate or metaphorize differently from the victim of another?
When such questions involve polio, ancillary queries arise. Do diseases that strike in childhood—as polio often does—differ, in the eventual literary production they inspire, from those which usually strike in adulthood? With regard to the last two questions, consider the terminal diseases— like cancer, tuberculosis, and AIDS—that give the ill person a chance to aestheticize the experience of the disease and to write about it before dying.
Many polios died from that trauma. The number of deaths is far greater than most people expect. Where there seem to be day-by-day accounts, or journals, written by polios that take us through the critical days of the disease itself, it is always participant-observers who write them. They may feel that their polio experience has charmed the rest of their lives. Does the kind of isolation that a disease or social condition foists upon a person matter to the literary output of the diseased person?
Do diseases whose sufferers are totally quarantined result in different literary production than do diseases whose sufferers had experiences that are more communal? What happens to patients when they are permanently quarantined—as they were in the leper colonies that still operated in the United States during the period of the polio epidemics?
If, as some say, sexual desire and death are key and motivating themes, then the subject of venereal disease leading to death—which, like the subject of AIDS, might allow for expression of various connections between sexuality and death—would seem to have the aesthetic advantage, when it comes to making great literature, over a presumably nonvenereal, nonmorbid disease like polio.
In fact, the etiology of polio at many periods in its historical reception was believed to be nonvenereal—unrelated to sexual activity.
That was partly because polio paralyzed and killed infants and children—creatures whom the popular imagination often understood prologue 21 as creatures without sexual desire. There are, however, at least three countervailing factors to consider.
The paralytic effects of what we now know as polio were confused with paresis of the sort transmitted venereally by syphilis. An extraordinary belief prevailed in twentieth-century popular culture that polio could not be a disease of concupiscence, because it usually affected children, and children do not experience sexual desire.
Popular prejudice often applies to adult polios the sexlessness already falsely attributed to all children. Polio was further believed to dull all sensation and to make childbirth impossible.
So too Jocasta sees to it that Oedipus is lamed and eventually grows up oversexed. Most other biographies begin conceptually with the moment of birth in the context of familial genealogy. Then it is over—except for the lifelong debilitation and injuries that result from that initial bout with polio.
However, this view of polio is wrong. Many people have longerterm aftereffects, or sequelae, of polio—that is to say, they have post-polio syndrome PPS. Despite claims to the contrary, post-polio syndrome is not a recently discovered or freshly invented condition; as we shall see, it was known at least as far back as The history of polio is the history of forgetting polio. Some individuals who had polio will not develop overt symptoms of PPS. On the other hand, some who thought they did not have polio actually did have polio though without knowing it.
Linda Gunther, eight left , and Mary Jo Moss, two, lie in iron lungs equipped with rearview mirrors and puppets. Their parents watch at an observation window. Memphis Isolation Hospital, Tennessee, What was that year like for poliomyelitis research?
July: the hostilities of the Korean War, which had kept many American polio workers occupied with trying to keep the troops relatively safe from polio, ended. December: the Foundation proposed that the evaluation team be headquartered at the University of Michigan. February Francis presented his plan to inject placebo or vaccine into , school children.
Eventually 1,, children participated. For these children in , February really was a great moment in the history of medicine. Anyhow—that is what we were told. Making History. So we are really making History today. We are lucky. It was not so good for some of the children who received placebos instead of vaccine. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
In addition, it leaves out other events of that we shall have occasion to discuss in Polio and Its Aftermath. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were executed. October I contracted polio. Our movie direction now requires us to focus a wider-angle lens on the times. For now, a brief rundown on the statistics of place, disease, and time will serve to locate how things fell out for me, an individual, in terms of demographic variables and may point to the larger statistical surveys that one might still one polio story Places, Diseases, Times Place: Manitoba had So the chance of getting polio was far less in Quebec than in Manitoba.
Disease: Tuberculosis was reported that year, for all Canada, at a rate of In the same year, polio was reported, for all Canada, at My risk of getting polio in Canada that year was less than my chance of getting tuberculosis.
The polio rate in Quebec was The outbreak of poliomyelitis was much discussed in the medical literature. In , there were 1, reported cases in all Canada, of which 1, were from Quebec. Of the all-Canadian deaths from polio that year, were from Quebec. The polio vaccine might have prevented most such deaths. Top 10 Jokes about Chelm. Thank you for another engaging article braachot explains even more about bachot wonderful season.
Dry on paper towels if you insist. The Battle for Beauty. I enjoyed very much!! It chanukqh not counted as bracuot of the candles. I will also do my best to share the story of Chanukah accurately!
Lighting Chanukah Candles Another version of dreidel is where players use pennies, nuts, raisins, or chocolate coins as tokens or chips.
My Grandfather, the Walking Miracle. See animation at top. Thanks for this terrific guide to Chanukah!
On the first night, place one candle at the far right, as you face the menorah. Antiochus sent thousands of well-armed troops to crush the rebellion, but after three years the Maccabees beat incredible odds and miraculously succeeded in driving the foreigners from their land.
When the Greeks challenged the Jews to sacrifice a pig to a Greek god, a few courageous Jews took to the hills of Judea in open revolt against this threat to Jewish life. Light the shammus candle first, then recite the blessings while holding the candle. From then on, Jews have observed a holiday for eight days, in honor of this historic victory and the miracle of the oil. An exhaust fan in the window is helpful, and two spatulas for turning are helpful.
I am not embarrassed to admit, that to me it was not a simple reading material but, a lesson of growth learned for the rest of my life.