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Q: Oops! The recipient already owns the course I gifted. What now? Switching drugs 'on' and 'off' is achieved by introducing photoswitches such as azobenzene , spiropyran or diarylethene into the drug. By introducing the photoswitch, the drug has two different states between which can be switched with light.
Since both states have a different structure, the activity of the drug is different hence the 'on' and 'off' state of the drug   Newspaper headlines from around the world about polio vaccine tests 13 April Pharmacology can be studied in relation to wider contexts.
Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. This relates to the broader fields of epidemiology and public health. Pharmacoenvironmentology or Environmental pharmacology is a new discipline. There is a close collaboration between environmental science and medicine in addressing these issues, as healthcare itself can be a cause of environmental damage or remediation.
Human health and ecology are intimately related. Demand for more pharmaceutical products may place the public at risk through the destruction of species. The entry of chemicals and drugs into the aquatic ecosystem is a more serious concern today.
In addition, the production of some illegal drugs pollutes drinking water supply by releasing carcinogens.
Environmental pharmacology studies the environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products PPCPs is currently being widely investigated. PPCPs include substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock.
More than twenty million tons of PPCPs are produced every year. The effects of these chemicals on humans and the environment are not yet known, but to date there is no scientific evidence that they affect human health. Environmental pharmacology considers the effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment.
Ethnopharmacology relates to the ethnic and cultural aspects of pharmacology. Experimentation and analysis[ edit ] Interactions between proteins are frequently visualized and analyzed using networks. This network is made up of protein—protein interactions from Treponema pallidum , the causative agent of syphilis and other diseases. Theoretical pharmacology is a relatively new and rapidly expanding field of research activity in which many of the techniques of computational chemistry, in particular computational quantum chemistry and the method of molecular mechanics, are proving to be of great value.
Theoretical pharmacologists aim at rationalizing the relation between the activity of a particular drug, as observed experimentally, and its structural features as derived from computer experiments. They aim to find structure—activity relations. Furthermore, on the basis of the structure of a given organic molecule, the theoretical pharmacologist aims at predicting the biological activity of new drugs that are of the same general type as existing drugs.
More ambitiously, it aims to predict entirely new classes of drugs, tailor-made for specific purposes.
Similarly, pharmacometrics are mathematical models of biology, pharmacology, disease, and physiology used to describe and quantify interactions between xenobiotics and patients human and non-human , including beneficial effects and adverse effects.
Experimental pharmacology involves the study of pharmacology through bioassay , to test the efficacy and potency of a drug. Systems pharmacology or network pharmacology is the application of systems biology principles in the field of pharmacology. This relates to the broader field of bioinformatics. Theory of pharmacology[ edit ] A trio of dose response curves.
Dose response curves are studied extensively in pharmacology The study of chemicals requires intimate knowledge of the biological system affected. With the knowledge of cell biology and biochemistry increasing, the field of pharmacology has also changed substantially.
It has become possible, through molecular analysis of receptors , to design chemicals that act on specific cellular signaling or metabolic pathways by affecting sites directly on cell-surface receptors which modulate and mediate cellular signaling pathways controlling cellular function. Chemicals can have pharmacologically relevant properties and effects. Pharmacokinetics describes the effect of the body on the chemical e.
Systems, receptors and ligands[ edit ] Main articles: Ligand biochemistry , List of drugs , and Neurotransmitter The cholinergic synapse.
Targets in synapses can be modulated with pharmacological agents. In this case, cholinergics such as muscarine and anticholinergics such as atropine target receptors; transporter inhibitors such as hemicholinium target membrane transport proteins and anticholinesterases such as sarin target enzymes Pharmacology is typically studied with respect to particular systems, for example endogenous neurotransmitter systems.
The major systems studied in pharmacology can be categorised by their ligands and include acetylcholine , adrenaline , glutamate , GABA , dopamine , histamine , serotonin , cannabinoid and opioid.