Standards PDF Cover Page Document preview. Historical. ASTM D Standard Practice ASTM International [ASTM]. Add to Alert; PDF. Add to Alert. × . D Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and .. Active Standard ASTM D | Developed by Subcommittee: D Oct 1, Protective Packaging Test Protocols pre-ASTM D 4 . Added Conc. Impact. D, mod FL Handling, editorial. 3.
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Buy ASTM D PRACTICE FOR PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SHIPPING CONTAINERS AND SYSTEMS from SAI Global. D - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. ASTM standard. Uploaded by. wdavid81 · ISTA_2A_ Uploaded by. One test regime is detailed by ASTM International in ASTM D - 09,. Standard Practice One recommended option is to select simulated manual handling.
The required loading must consider the effects of length of time in storage, the alignment or stacking pattern of the container, variability in container strength, moisture content, temperature, previous handling and transportation, method of load support, and vibration. The minimum required loads for typical shipping units which include the combined effects of the above factors are recommended below for Schedule B—Warehouse Stacking and Schedule C—Vehicle Stacking select test levels for either warehouse or vehicle stacking as de?
Containers constructed of materials other 3. Remove the load within 3 s after reaching the speci? If the average shipping density factor Mf for the speci? The test levels and methods account for the magnitude, frequency range, duration, and direction of vibration. Two test method options are permitted, sine and random.
The two methods are not equivalent; they will not necessarily produce the same results. The random test method results in a better simulation of actual transport vibration environments, and is the preferred method for quali? The sine test method is often used in conjunction with the random method as a means of determining and observing system resonances.
It is permissible to use a concentrated dead load to simulate an upper unit load or mixed commodities. The concentrated load may be calculated from the formulas in Recommended intensities and durations for the random tests are given in A Conditioning—See Section 6. Special Instructions—The following power spectral densities, as de? The Truck test is recommended for Distribution Cycles 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
The Rail test is recommended for Distribution Cycles 7, 8 and A60 min Truck test followed by a min Rail test is recommended for Distribution Cycles 9 and A60 min Truck test followed by a min Air test is recom- mended for Distribution Cycles 12 and B For vehicle vibration tests in multiple shipping unit orientations, the total duration should be distributed evenly between the orientations tested.
The average test time required to reproduce shipping damage is dependent on the mode of failure, as well as the vibration level. Some over-stress and abrasion modes of failure will occur in much less than 3 h, while some fatigue failure modes may require more than 3 h to occur.
Test durations ranging from 30 min to 6 h have been used successfully for different product or package types. The recommended min duration is reasonable in the absence of speci? Special Instructions—Dwell time is for each noted product or package resonance up to four discrete resonances.
If more than four resonances are noted, test at the four frequencies where the greatest response is noted. In frequency sweeps it is advisable to consider the frequency ranges normally encoun- tered in the type of transportation being considered. The resonant frequency ies may shift during test due to changing characteristics of the container system. It is suggested that the dwell frequency be varied slightly during the test to detect any shift and to continue testing at the frequency of maximum response.
Schedule F—Loose Load Vibration The test levels and test method account for amplitude, direction, and duration of the repetitive shocks. Schedule G—Simulated Rail Switching Special Instructions—Three impacts shall be performed. For railcars with standard draft gear, shock durations of 40 6 10 ms shall be used, as measured on the? For railcars with long—travel draft gear, shock durations of 6 50 ms shall be used. Note that Test Method D is used for standard draft gear only.
For purposes of this test, the coefficient of restitution shall be considered 0. Container impact surface should be the same as occurs in actual shipment. If more than one orientation is possible, impact that surface which is known to be most sensitive to damage.
Refer to Test Methods D or D for speci? Total backload shall be equivalent to a minimum of 3 ft lineal 0.
The package used as backload in contact with the test package must be identical to the test package. The speci? Schedule H—Environmental Hazard This schedule determines the susceptibility of the total pack to the effects of moisture, temperature shock, or the combined effects of cyclic exposure. Testing shall be in accordance with Test Method D, where spray intensities of 4 6 0. At the end of the three day period, the unit pack being tested shall then set overnight 6 5 71 6 2 16 Not applicable This test shall be conducted in accordance with levels described in Test Method D This test should be included for products and packages that could be sensitive to a low pressure environment, for example, sealed?
This test may be deleted from DC 12 and 13 when shipping units contain primary packages that have a porous material porous packaging material is de? If these are not known precisely, use levels recommended by Test Method D of pressure equivalent to m 14 ft.
The test duration and pressure levels may be modi? Schedule J—Concentrated Impact The test is only applicable to lightweight singlewall corrugated shipping containers under Burst or 44 ECT and plastic?
Test the appropriate packages or unit loads according to Test Method D Report At a minimum, the report should include: Precision and Bias Keywords Description of this schedule is in accordance with Use the? Test small shipping units using the following test levels: Shipping Weight, lb kg 0 to 30 0 to For Assurance Level I, shipping cases and crates and unitized loads shall also be subjected to sling handling. For cylindrical shipping units, only rotational edgewise drop tests shall apply.
Table 2 shall be used as a guide in determining both the required tests and the sequence to be followed. For unitized loads, only the tip test will be required. The tip test shall be performed for Assurance Level II for all rectangular shipping units.
The tip test is useful for determining acceptable shipping unit dimension and center of gravity. For tipover, one impact is required on each of two opposite sides, as determined by the initial side having the lowest height—to—width ratio. Within the minimum ft B Test to be performed only during the? C Test to be performed only during the second handling sequence of DC D Test to be performed only during the third handling sequence of DC For cylindrical shipping units, drops shall be made with the unit on its side, such that impacts occur on top and bottom rims at diagonally opposite quadrants.
Care must be taken to prevent the container from rolling on the support. For corner drops, use Method B of Test Methods D, except that one corner of the shipping unit base shall be supported on a 6 in. Each corner will be impacted, for a total of four drops. Both edgewise and cornerwise drops shall be performed on large rectangular shipping units.
For all rotational drops, test with the lowest drop height indicated by either gross weight or maximum dimension, using the following test levels. Gross Weight, lb kg or Maximum Dimension, in mm over to 45 to or over 60 to 66 to over to to or over 66 to 78 to over to to or over 78 to 90 to over over or over 90 Drop Height, in. Alternatively, testing may be in accordance with Test Method D, Method B, using a short duration programmer, assuming the coefficient of restitution is 0.
Selection of apparatus, as de? As a requirement for Assurance Level I, the impact velocity shall be 7. One lateral impact shall be performed on each side including ends surface having a dimension less than 9. A4 by 4 in. Note that this test is performed only during the third handling sequence. For nonpressurized aircraft transport, use km 15 ft as expected altitude corresponding pressure in a standard atmosphere: Special Instruction—Dwell time shall be distributed as follows: 1 For Assurance Levels I and II, the dwell time shall be 2 hours on the base for unitized loads and shipping containers with skid bases, and 1 hour in each of three mutually perpendicular axes for all other shipping containers which may be transported in any orientation.
For the vertical vibration, conduct the test for 3 h on a vertical motion vibration machine. For transverse and longitudinal vibration, conduct the test on a horizontal motion vibration machine for 3 h in each axis. For the transverse and longitudinal motion tests, fasten the test specimen to the vibration machine surface by the use of two or more straps over the specimen at right angle to the vibratory motion, tightened down to the machine surface to prevent movement.
I-bolts with ratcheting straps are suggested restraining devices. No damage is acceptable and the package must be in good condition after the test. The corrugated? The customer stores palletized loads 2 high on the?
The product does not support any of the load. Criterion 2—All packages in saleable condition.
Horizontal impact all four sides, 4. A Pick up, transport around test course, set down, 5 cycles. AAlternative vibration test con? Additional information is that the package has unsupported interior spans exceeding 12 in. One drop on bot- tom, drop height 14 in. The understanding of distribution may be developed in several ways, including: measurement of the environment with appropriate instrumentation; careful observation of the various hazard elements in distribution; reference to published authoritative information; product damage reports; or a combination thereof.
This includes the ability to vary Assurance Levels between test schedules for each hazard element, as presently stated in 8. The ability to modify test levels or other details within a test schedule is also permitted in DC-2 when experience has shown it more accurately correlates with actual experience.
Subsequent corner drop tests revealed that a drop of 42 in. The packaged product weighs 43 lb, and outside dimensions of the container are 24 in.
There is no reported damage to the corrugated containers due to excessive compressive loads, and instrumented shipments verify that the container is almost always in a normal depth orientation 42 in.
Drop once from 42 in. N 66 The form and content of acceptance criteria may vary widely, in accordance with the particular situation. Methods may range from simple pass-fail judgments to highly quantitative scoring or analysis systems. Condition the shipping units to a standard atmosphere of Condition fiberboard containers in accordance with Practice D The same atmospheric condition should be used for any assurance level.
A conditioning period of 72 h, or sufficient time to reach equilibrium of all parts of the package and product is recommended.
Tests should be conducted in the conditioned atmosphere whenever possible. If not possible, conduct the tests as soon after removal from the conditioning atmosphere as practicable.
Recondition the shipping units to the standard atmosphere as necessary during the test plan. The same climatic condition should be used for any assurance level. A conditioning period should be provided which will allow sufficient time to reach equilibrium of all parts of the package and product.
Recondition the shipping units as necessary during the test plan. For atmospheres other than the standard conditioning atmosphere, the user must determine the appropriate compressive load factor for warehouse and vehicle stacking, as the factors given in See 3.
Determine whether the container will be manually or mechanically handled. The level should be one of three pre-established assurance levels. This must be pre-established based on the product value, the desired level of anticipated damage that can be tolerated, the number of units to be shipped, knowledge of the shipping environment, or other criteria.
Assurance Level II is suggested unless conditions dictate otherwise. Assurance Level I provides a more severe test than II.